亞太中文電視臺

Xi Jinping and Modi to Begin a New Chapter for China-India Relations

2019-10-13 23:02 亞太通訊社


Asia Pacific News Agency
 (Author/ Long Xingchun,the director of the Center of Indian Research, China West Normal University) The President of the People’s Republic of China, Xi Jinping, and the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, held their Second Informal Summit in Chennai, India, on 11–12 October 2019, indicating that the strategic communication between the leaders of China and India has become institutionalized after their first informal meeting in April 2018.
 
In recent years, outstanding issues such as the border question have not been resolved, and some new issues have come under the spotlight. For example, India attributed its failure to join the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to China, and it deemed that China’s increasing presence in South Asia and the Indian Ocean poses challenges to India. The Dong Lang confrontation during the summer of 2017 pushed Sino-Indian tensions to the brink of war. Although that standoff was finally resolved peacefully, it caused the leaders of the two countries to recognize that they must give prominence to Sino-Indian strategic communication, enhance strategic mutual trust, productively manage their differences and prevent disputes from escalating into conflicts. The first summit last year adequately enhanced the strategic communication between China and India, mended the damage to relations caused by the Dong Lang event and put China-India relations back on a normal track.
 
In May, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won India’s elections, and Modi was re-elected as Prime Minister of India. Immediately afterwards, the Indian media began to report that the Second Informal Summit between Chinese and Indian leaders might be held in India in October. All of a sudden, however, by revoking Article 370 granting special status to India-administered Kashmir and placing Ladakh under the direct jurisdiction of the union on Aug 5, New Delhi opened a Pandora’s Box triggering a new round of tension between India and Pakistan. India’s definition of “Kashmir” involves Chinese territory, and moreover India believes that China has been biased in favor of Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan, causing twists and turns in Sino-Indian relations. In September, the Indian military undertook another large-scale drill east of the disputed border between China and India. Although it claimed that it was a routine drill, its intentions against China could not be more obvious. In early October the Indian government conducted another announcement restricting exchange between Indian universities and their Chinese counterparts. These moves struck a jarring note in the friendly atmosphere between China and India for the upcoming summit, and thus the Indian public began to worry about whether the second leaders’ summit would be cancelled. In the end the summit was held smoothly thanks to the two countries leaders’ far-sighted leadership and their steering clear of interference, with a focus instead on holistic, long-term and strategic issues between the two countries.
 
According to diplomatic practice, informal meetings, unlike official visits, simplify or even cancel ceremonial activities. Nevertheless, India made thoughtful preparations. President Xi was warmly welcomed by tens of thousands of people lining the streets after he arrived in Chennai. The air of warmth and friendliness somewhat resembled the honeymoon period of Sino-Indian relations back in the 1950s.
  
As there is a large area of disputed territory to be tackled by the two rising powers, China and India are bound to fall into confrontation and conflict according to the western theory of international relations. American scholars predicted many years ago that “there would surely be a war between China and India.” In his meeting with Modi, Xi Jinping proposed that “China and India should correctly view each other’s development and enhance strategic mutual trust. No matter from which perspective, the two countries should be good neighbors living in harmony and good partners moving forward hand in hand. ‘The Dragon and Elephant Dance’ is the only correct choice for China and India and is in the fundamental interests of the two countries and their peoples. The two neighboring countries should and can take a path of friendly cooperation.” As both Xi Jinping and Modi highlighted, the two countries are endowed with ancient civilizations that have their respective unique culture and wisdom. It is believed that the two will definitely avert the doom of “Inevitable Conflicts between Great Powers” espoused by the West, achieve the long-term peaceful development of Sino-Indian relations and develop a way of coexistence between countries far removed from that of the West.
  
Differences and disputes do not hinder cooperation among countries. Xi Jinping pointed out that “China and India should emphasize friendship and cooperation, resolve suspicion and misgivings, and properly handle differences and sensitive issues. As for issues that cannot be promptly solved, they should be properly managed.” Inter-state relations are as complex as interpersonal ones. The key is in how countries face and deal with them, as differences and disputes are unavoidable. Negative thinking holds that cooperation cannot be achieved without resolving disputes, while positive thinking expresses faith that cooperation can still be achieved between countries despite disputes. Objectively speaking, the potential for cooperation extends far beyond the disputes between China and India. On the one hand, China and India need to work hard to address their issues and contain the problems that are difficult to tackle in the short term, so as not to let them hinder cooperation. On the other, promoting common interests and strategic mutual trust through cooperation is more conducive to coping with the outstanding issues.
  
Xi Jinping reiterated that “China and India should intensify cooperation in international and regional affairs, unequivocally stand for the international system with the United Nations at its core, as well as the international order based on international laws, firmly support multilateralism and the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization at its core, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries for development.” Prime Minister Modi also stated that “world peace and human progress cannot be achieved without India-China cooperation in the 21st century.” In the wake of the 2008 international financial crisis, China and India have become major economies with the world’s fastest growth as well as the two largest contributors to world economic growth. Therefore, not only is Sino-Indian cooperation constructive to both sides, but it is also of great significance to the region and the world as a whole. Especially against the backdrop of anti-globalization in developed western countries, the meddling of the United States with the international multilateral mechanism, and the world’s fall into a period of uncertainty, Sino-Indian cooperation will allow the world to rest assured more than ever before.
    
In addition to global, long term and strategic issues, Xi Jinping and Modi did not overlook specific bilateral issues. China has proactively increased imports of Indian rice and sugar and has welcomed Indian pharmaceutical and information technology enterprises to invest and cooperate in China. Evidently, China has taken a positive attitude towards addressing India’s concerns about their trade deficit. India gave welcoming signals to encourage more Chinese enterprises to invest in manufacturing and other industries in India, which plays an important role in promoting “Made in India” as initiated by Prime Minister Modi. India has decided to issue five-year multi-entry tourist visas to Chinese citizens from October, which will surely attract a large number of Chinese tourists to India and greatly promote the development of Indian tourism and people-to-people exchange in between. The two countries also decided to jointly organize 70 events to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations next year. Moreover with President Xi Jinping’s invitation to Prime Minister Modi to pay a state visit to China, it is expected that, as long as differences are well managed, China-India relations and the friendly atmosphere between the two will reach new heights in 2020, laying a good foundation for the two countries to usher in a new era of long-term friendship.


習近平和莫迪把中印關系帶入新時代
亞太通訊社(撰稿/西華師大印度研究中心主任龍興春  翻譯/曉愁) 10月11-12日,中國國家主席習近平與印度總理莫迪在金奈舉行第二次領導人非正式會晤。表明2018年4月第一次非正式會晤后,中印領導人的戰略溝通已經實現機制化。
       這些年,中印間邊界問題等原有的矛盾沒有得到解決,又產生了一些新的矛盾,如印度申請加入NSG不成怪罪中國,認為中國在南亞及印度洋地區的存在增加對印度形成挑戰。2017年夏天發生的洞朗對峙把中印矛盾推到戰爭的邊緣,雖然對峙最后得到和平解決,但這讓兩國領導人意識到必須高度重視中印戰略溝通,增進戰略互信,有效管控分歧,防止矛盾升級為沖突。去年的第一次領導人非正式會晤有力地加強了中印戰略溝通,修復了因洞朗對峙受傷的中印關系,把兩國關系重新拉回到正常軌道上。
       今天5月,印度人民黨(BJP)贏利印度大選,莫迪連任印度總理。隨即,印度媒體就開始報道,中印領導人第二次非正式會晤可能10月份在印度舉行。然而,8月5日,印度政府突然宣布取消憲法370條賦予印克什米爾的自治地位,并把拉達克從印控克什米爾地區劃出來單列為聯邦直轄區,引發新一輪印巴關系緊張。由于印方所定義的“克什米爾”涉及到中方領土,加同印度認為中國在印巴克什米爾爭端上偏向巴基斯坦,使中印關系出現波折。9月,印度軍方又在中印邊界爭議的東段舉行大規模軍事演習,雖然聲稱例行演習,但針對中國的意圖明顯。10月初,印度政府部門又出臺限制印度高校與中國高校交流的通知。這些動作與中印友好和兩國領導人即將會晤的大氣氛格格不入,以至印方輿論都開始擔心第二次領導人非正式會晤會不會取消。最后看來,兩國領導人高瞻遠矚,從中印關系的大局出發,著眼兩國關系的全局性、長期性和戰略性問題,排除干擾,使第二次領導人非正式會晤順利舉行。
       從外交慣例來講,非正式會晤相對正式訪問會簡化乃至取消儀式性和禮儀性活動,但印方還是做了精心安排,習近平主席到達金奈后受到上印度萬民眾夾道歡迎,熱情友好氣氛仿佛回到了上世紀50年代中印關系蜜月期。
       作為兩國崛起中的大國,雙方又存在大面積的領土爭端,按照西方國際關系理論,中印必然陷入對抗和沖突,多年前曾經美國學者預測“中印必有一戰”。在與莫迪的會晤中,習近平提出“中印要正確看待對方發展,增進戰略互信。無論從哪個角度看,中印都應該是和諧相處的好鄰居、攜手前行的好伙伴。實現“龍象共舞”是中印唯一正確選擇,符合兩國和兩國人民根本利益。兩國應該也完全可以走出一條兩個相鄰大國友好合作的康莊大道。”正如習近平和莫迪都強調,中國和印度都是文明古國,有著自己獨特的文化和智慧,相信中國和印度一定能走出西方“大國間必然沖突”的陷阱,實現中印關系的長期和平發展,走出不同于西方的國家間相處道路。
       分歧和矛盾并不妨礙國家間合作。習近平指出“中印要聚焦友好和合作,化解猜忌和疑慮,妥善處理分歧和敏感問題。對一時解決不了的問題,要妥善加以管控”。國家間關系和人際關系一樣都是非常復雜的,分歧和矛盾總是難免,關鍵是怎樣面對和處理。消極的思維認為,矛盾不解決就無法進行合作,而積極思維認為矛盾存在的情況下,國家間依然可以合作?陀^地看,中印間雖然有一些矛盾,但是合作潛力更大。中印一方面需要努力解決矛盾,但對于短期內實在難以解決的矛盾要盡量加以管控,不讓矛盾阻礙合作;相反,通過合作增進共同利益和戰略互信更有助于解決原有矛盾。
       習近平強調“中印加強在國際和地區事務中的合作。旗幟鮮明地維護以聯合國為核心的國際體系和以國際法為基礎的國際秩序,堅定維護多邊主義和以世界貿易組織為核心的多邊貿易體制,保障發展中國家的正當發展權益。”莫迪總理也指出“進入21世紀,世界和平和人類進步離不開印中合作。”2008年國際金融危機后,中國和印度成是世界是經濟增長最快的主要經濟體,也是對世界經濟增長貢獻最大的兩個經濟體。因此,中印合作不僅有利于雙方,對地區和全球都有重要意義。特別是在西方發達國家出現逆全球化,美國破壞國際多邊機制,讓世界進入一個不確定性的時期,中印合作將為世界增加更多確定性。
       在聚集全局性、長期性和戰略性問題外,習近平和莫迪并沒有忽視兩國關系當前的一些具體問題。中方積極增加進口印度大米和食糖等產品,歡迎印度藥品企業和信息技術企業赴華投資合作,顯然中國對解決印度關切的貿易逆差問題持積極姿態。印方歡迎更多中國企業來印投資制造業等產業,對推動莫迪總理提出的“印度制造”有重要作用。印度決定從10月份開始向中國公民發放5年多次入境的旅游簽證,這必將吸引大量中國游客到印度旅游,極大地促進印度旅游業發展和中印人員往來。雙方還決定明年共同辦好慶祝建交70周年70場系列活動,加上習近平主席邀請莫迪總理再次赴華舉行會晤,相信只要管控好分歧,中印關系及兩國友好合作氣氛在2020年將達到新的高度,為兩國關系進入長期友好的新時代埋下里程碑。  
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